Session 1.1: Implementing NDCs through Action Plans

May 17th, 2021

This session reviewed policies and plans for DMC’s relevance to NDC implementation, thereby providing the space for relevant stakeholders to come together, discuss, and increase overall awareness on climate change-related issues and NDC implementation specifically. It is a chance to bring all relevant information in one place, to build additional evidence, and to more clearly link NDC implementation with sectoral and national priorities, including highlighting co-benefits between mitigation and adaptation, an area that was raised as a gap in sectoral interviews.


  • Ms. Preety Bhandari, Director, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management Division of the Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, Asian Development Bank

Opening Talk:

  • Looking Beyond Nationally Determined Contributions
    Presenter: Priyantha Wijayatunga, Director of Energy Division, SARD, Asian Development Bank

The countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), in the context of the energy sector, typically contain renewable energy, energy efficiency and related targets.  However, most NDCs are quite modest compared to rapid advances in clean energy technologies and business models.  They are definitely not ambitious enough to limit 1.50C rise in temperature by 2100. Instead, the current pledges by the governments likely to lead to about 30C rise and the current policies, even beyond. Time to think beyond NDCs and have clear roadmaps possibly set targets for carbon neutrality and even be more aggressive and try to be carbon negative.  Most developing member countries (DMCs) do not currently rely that much on coal. We do need to encourage them to shift away from seeking new coal plants completely and other fossil fuels like natural gas to extent the technical constraints allow, in power generation. Local co-benefits are the best justification for the DMCs to change course against fossil fuels.

In ADB Strategy 2030, energy sector investments will be cross-cutting and are inputs to all seven operational priorities.  The energy policy update is quite clear: no more coal, not excited about natural gas, and opens the door to more creative projects with hybrid systems. ADB will continue its support to help countries help themselves to implement ambitious energy sector interventions looking beyond NDCs. 

Scene Setter Talk:

  • Isabelle De Lovinfosse, Head of South East Asia COP26 Strategy British High Commissioner to Singapore
  • Presentation


  • NDC Roadmap: Future of Energy Transition in Vietnam
    Presenter: Nhien Ngo, Executive Director,  Vietnam Initiative for Energy Transition

The Government of Viet Nam was among the first countries to submit its updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC in 2020. The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 in the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario would be 928 MtCO2e, a 3-fold increase compared to the 2014 emissions of 284 MtCO2e. Emissions from the power sector would be 452.3 MtCO2eq in 2030, accounting for 49% of total BAU emissions. Energy is thus by far the largest contributor to GHG emissions. The targeted emission reduction by 2030 is 9% compared to the BAU scenario with domestic resources (equivalent to 83.9 MtCO2e) and up to 27% with international support (equivalent to 250.8 MtCO2e). The energy transition in Vietnam is happening at an unprecedented speed and scale with the share of solar and wind capacity increased from negligible to 25% (17 GW out of 68.8 GW) in just 2 years (2019-2020). The booming of renewable energy leading to shortening the time to achieve the emission reduction goal of the power sector. Vietnam can absolutely set a more ambitious power sector emissions goal. The presentation will discuss the ambitious goal of reducing emissions for the power sector and Vietnam NDC'sup to 2030.

  • Achieving the Indonesian NDC: The Role of the Power Sector
    Presenter: Kamia Handayani, Manager of Climate Change, PT PLN (Persero)
  • Presentation

The Indonesian NDC sets out a target of reducing 314 million tons of CO2 emissions from the energy sector in 2030. More than half of this target is expected to be attained from the power sector. Therefore, it is central for the power sector to have a strong climate change mitigation strategy that is aligned with the NDC. The proposed presentation will assess the alignment of Indonesia’s NDC with the 10-year Electricity Supply Business Plan, which was prepared by PLN, the state-owned electricity company, and endorsed by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. Furthermore, the presentation will also discuss the role of carbon pricing that is being introduced by the Indonesian Government in supporting climate change mitigation actions in the Indonesian power sector.

  • Role of Green Hydrogen in Achieving NDC Targets
    Presenter: Rathin Kukreja, Manager of Climate Change, ICF Consulting India Pvt. Ltd.
  • Presentation

In order to achieve long-term climate goals, several countries have pledged upon net-zero targets by mid-century. Given the rate of industrial development in developing economies like India, Hydrogen is expected to play a pivotal role in achieving the NDC targets as well as towards a carbon-neutral economy. Globally, over 95% of the total hydrogen consumed is produced using fossil fuel-based processes. Green hydrogen produced from renewable sources through the electrolysis of water could be used as a flexible energy vector to decarbonize the existing hydrogen demand and economic activities in hard-to-abate sectors. However, today less than 0.1% of global hydrogen production comes through the green route. This is primarily because of higher production costs. This paper reviews the latest developments toward a hydrogen economy in India, as there is a need to identify cost-effective technologies and associated business models in energy-intensive sectors (especially the industrial sector) to help meet the ambitious climate targets. It will look at the existing policy and regulatory ecosystem, experience from international markets, and the opportunities and barriers in the value chain of Green Hydrogen including interventions required to ensure the sustainability of future investments in this sector. It will also address how through policy interventions and large-scale technology deployment, green hydrogen can become the most competitive route for hydrogen production by 2030.


  • Utsav Adhikari, Vice President Delphos International Ltd.
  • John Beirne,  Research Fellow Asian Development Bank Institute