Track 1: Tracing Future Paths with Technology Roadmaps for NDCs
Track 1 considered long-term issues faced by ADB’s Developing Member Countries (DMCs), and focused on the DMCs’ achievement of their national climate targets, or Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). NDCs set out each country’s approach to reducing emissions and adapting to a changing climate. In pursuing their NDCs, countries will need to balance economic growth, poverty reduction, and climate change efforts.
Track 1 discussed issues and explore strategies for confronting the energy transition. Implementing NDCs with technological roadmaps can support the achievement of SDGs across all sectors and levels of government and attract finance and technical support.
The objectives of Track 1 were to:
- exchange country experiences with the implementation of NDCs
- discuss technical issues and political processes related to NDCs
- identify NDC-related challenges that are arising in countries across the region
- discuss lessons learned and possible solutions for timely submission of NDCs
- consider the long-term low-carbon outlook for the ADB’s DMCs
Sessions under track 1 comprised:
This session reviewed policies and plans for DMC’s relevance to NDC implementation, thereby providing the space for relevant stakeholders to come together, discuss, and increase overall awareness on climate change-related issues and NDC implementation specifically. It is a chance to bring all relevant information in one place, to build additional evidence, and to more clearly link NDC implementation with sectoral and national priorities, including highlighting co-benefits between mitigation and adaptation, an area that was raised as a gap in sectoral interviews.
- Ms. Preety Bhandari, Director, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management Division of the Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, Asian Development Bank
- Looking Beyond Nationally Determined Contributions
Presenter: Priyantha Wijayatunga, Director of Energy Division, SARD, Asian Development Bank
The countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), in the context of the energy sector, typically contain renewable energy, energy efficiency and related targets. However, most NDCs are quite modest compared to rapid advances in clean energy technologies and business models. They are definitely not ambitious enough to limit 1.50C rise in temperature by 2100. Instead, the current pledges by the governments likely to lead to about 30C rise and the current policies, even beyond. Time to think beyond NDCs and have clear roadmaps possibly set targets for carbon neutrality and even be more aggressive and try to be carbon negative. Most developing member countries (DMCs) do not currently rely that much on coal. We do need to encourage them to shift away from seeking new coal plants completely and other fossil fuels like natural gas to extent the technical constraints allow, in power generation. Local co-benefits are the best justification for the DMCs to change course against fossil fuels.
In ADB Strategy 2030, energy sector investments will be cross-cutting and are inputs to all seven operational priorities. The energy policy update is quite clear: no more coal, not excited about natural gas, and opens the door to more creative projects with hybrid systems. ADB will continue its support to help countries help themselves to implement ambitious energy sector interventions looking beyond NDCs.
Scene Setter Talk:
- Isabelle De Lovinfosse, Head of South East Asia COP26 Strategy British High Commissioner to Singapore
- NDC Roadmap: Future of Energy Transition in Vietnam
Presenter: Nhien Ngo, Executive Director, Vietnam Initiative for Energy Transition
The Government of Viet Nam was among the first countries to submit its updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC in 2020. The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2030 in the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario would be 928 MtCO2e, a 3-fold increase compared to the 2014 emissions of 284 MtCO2e. Emissions from the power sector would be 452.3 MtCO2eq in 2030, accounting for 49% of total BAU emissions. Energy is thus by far the largest contributor to GHG emissions. The targeted emission reduction by 2030 is 9% compared to the BAU scenario with domestic resources (equivalent to 83.9 MtCO2e) and up to 27% with international support (equivalent to 250.8 MtCO2e). The energy transition in Vietnam is happening at an unprecedented speed and scale with the share of solar and wind capacity increased from negligible to 25% (17 GW out of 68.8 GW) in just 2 years (2019-2020). The booming of renewable energy leading to shortening the time to achieve the emission reduction goal of the power sector. Vietnam can absolutely set a more ambitious power sector emissions goal. The presentation will discuss the ambitious goal of reducing emissions for the power sector and Vietnam NDC'sup to 2030.
- Achieving the Indonesian NDC: The Role of the Power Sector
Presenter: Kamia Handayani, Manager of Climate Change, PT PLN (Persero)
The Indonesian NDC sets out a target of reducing 314 million tons of CO2 emissions from the energy sector in 2030. More than half of this target is expected to be attained from the power sector. Therefore, it is central for the power sector to have a strong climate change mitigation strategy that is aligned with the NDC. The proposed presentation will assess the alignment of Indonesia’s NDC with the 10-year Electricity Supply Business Plan, which was prepared by PLN, the state-owned electricity company, and endorsed by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. Furthermore, the presentation will also discuss the role of carbon pricing that is being introduced by the Indonesian Government in supporting climate change mitigation actions in the Indonesian power sector.
- Role of Green Hydrogen in Achieving NDC Targets
Presenter: Rathin Kukreja, Manager of Climate Change, ICF Consulting India Pvt. Ltd.
In order to achieve long-term climate goals, several countries have pledged upon net-zero targets by mid-century. Given the rate of industrial development in developing economies like India, Hydrogen is expected to play a pivotal role in achieving the NDC targets as well as towards a carbon-neutral economy. Globally, over 95% of the total hydrogen consumed is produced using fossil fuel-based processes. Green hydrogen produced from renewable sources through the electrolysis of water could be used as a flexible energy vector to decarbonize the existing hydrogen demand and economic activities in hard-to-abate sectors. However, today less than 0.1% of global hydrogen production comes through the green route. This is primarily because of higher production costs. This paper reviews the latest developments toward a hydrogen economy in India, as there is a need to identify cost-effective technologies and associated business models in energy-intensive sectors (especially the industrial sector) to help meet the ambitious climate targets. It will look at the existing policy and regulatory ecosystem, experience from international markets, and the opportunities and barriers in the value chain of Green Hydrogen including interventions required to ensure the sustainability of future investments in this sector. It will also address how through policy interventions and large-scale technology deployment, green hydrogen can become the most competitive route for hydrogen production by 2030.
- Utsav Adhikari, Vice President Delphos International Ltd.
- John Beirne, Research Fellow Asian Development Bank Institute
This session included a discussion of the technology developments in renewables and energy efficiency, electrification, and other sectors, and approaches for setting the more ambitious targets in energy roadmaps with regulatory changes needed for the NDCs. Speakers presented specific low carbon transition cases through sharing innovative technology, advanced solution, business model and regulatory, etc., and shared experience and lessons learned.
- Lei Zhang, Unit Head, Project Administration, Sustainable Infrastructure Division, EARD Asian Development Bank
- Business Models for Floating PV in Azerbaijan
Presenter: Jorge Servert, CEO, STA
A comparative analysis of possible business models to implement utility-scale floating PV in Azerbaijan is presented. The different alternatives: Traditional procurement (Design-Build or EPC Contracts., Design, Build and Finance (DBF) contracts, PPP contracts (BOT or DBFOM contracts) and IPP contracts are analyzed considering the country and FPV specific characteristics.
- EV∙ESS Battery Reuse, Re-fabrication and Recycle Technology in South Korea
Presenter: Yu-Tack Kim Chief Researcher Korea Battery Industry Association
South Korea commenced mass Li-ion battery production in 1999 and launched its second-life program for products in 2015 with the expectation that there will be a steady supply of EV batteries ready for transformation to a stationary power provider with backup function. The EOL management of the batteries is addressed in the Clean Air provisions for emissions with an understanding that the government holds the ultimate responsibility for collecting batteries for recycling or re-purposing activities. The Korea Battery Industry Association (KBIA) developed a standard second-life battery reuse valuation method in 2019. Currently, a standard for a second-life. The objective of this speech is to provide an overview of the state of affairs with regards to reuse and recycling of Li-ion batteries, in order to assess if and to what extent developing countries can and should play a larger role in this burgeoning area.
South Korea has explored end-of-life scenarios for electric batteries for over 20 years and is already developing a robust recycling infrastructure for Li-ion batteries, including reuse capacities as a secondary stationary power source/backup. The motivation for developing countries to become integral contributors in a circular economy is simple: theoretically at least, research indicates that taking on such an approach is both economically and environmentally more effective. At the right scale, recycling/reusing Li-ion batteries is cheaper and cleaner.
- Integrated Low Carbon Energy Solution of Guangzhou International Finance Park in China
Presenter: Zixuan Guo, Power system planning & operation optimization engineer Guagdong Electric Power Design Institute (GEDI)
China is facing greater pressure on carbon limit in sustainable development like other developing countries. Along with the scaling up of concentrated renewable energy, the optimization of energy utilization in City Centre and High-Tech Industrial Park is the key point to reach the carbon target. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the integrated energy supply and utilization solution in High-Tech Centre Area. Taking Guangzhou International Finance Park (GIFP) for instance, in which the integrated energy system is in proceed of construction. This presentation will firstly illustrate the energy demand characteristic in High-Tech area, and propose a low-carbon and sustainable energy development direction of the area. Secondly, to meet the energy demand and utilizing efficiency, a structure of integrated energy demand will be given, a 3-phase construction scheme of the energy system including concentrated refrigeration, distributed energy generation will be proposed. Finally, the presentation will illustrated the technical performance of the planning scheme, including the curtailment of electricity, cost of standard coal, emission of carbon, and etc. In addition, to testify the feasibility of the project, the financial performance will also be introduced based on simulation of the whole system.
- Divina Chingcuanco, Chief of Party, RTI International
- Colin Steley, Senior Investment Specialist, Asian Development Bank
Presentations in this session provided in-depth analyses of technical roadmap, including NDC goals, specific new technologies, implementation plan, etc., described their role in a city level, national or regional context, and demonstrate how they contribute to achievement of NDC goals. Decision-makers will gain an appreciation of the importance of energy roadmaps in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation, and their role in meeting ambitious NDC targets.
Anindya Bhattacharya, Executive Director, The Celestial Earth
- Innovative Renewable Energy Procurement Strategies for the Small Island States
Amanda Lonsdale, Commercial Advisor to Tonga Power, Magnitude Global Finance
The Kingdom of Tonga, through its NDC, has committed to making 70% of its power generation renewable by 2030. To meet this goal, Tonga Power and its advisors are looking to issue a technology-agnostic tender for up to 37GWh of renewable generation capacity. The objective of an all-in-one tender is to achieve a lower overall price for energy and secure a partner in the transformation of the country’s grid now and into the future. The tender will be the first of its kind to focus on dispatchability—developers will be asked to develop projects that can meet the changing demand profile of the island, minimizing payment for unused energy and maintain network reliability. This project is funded by the ADB as part of its efforts to promote renewable energy in the Pacific. The purpose of the session will be to have a discussion around innovative renewable energy procurement and financing models for small island states. The presenter(s) will preview the structure of the tender, and have a discussion with interested parties around strengths, weaknesses, and marketability.
- Electric Cooking: The Way Forward
Reji Kumar Pillai, President; Chairman India Smart Grid Forum; Global Smart Energy Federation
About 4 million people die prematurely from diseases caused by household air pollution, primarily from cooking with firewood, charcoal and biomass. As of 2019, 63% rural and 18% urban households in India use firewood, dung cakes or biomass for cooking and nearly 600,000 people died of household air pollution in India in 2019. Therefore, to reduce air pollution and deforestation as well as to meet the NDC targets, it is imperative that emissions from the kitchen must be reduced drastically. Having electrified almost all households in the country and with surplus electricity generation capacity, India should actively promote electric cooking as it is the fastest and least cost route to achieve NDC target and will also reduce LPG imports saving billions of dollars leading towards a self-reliant India.
- Energy Impact Fund: Catalytic Financing for Meaningful Development in Myanmar
Angus Dutton, Communications and Project Support Coordinator, Smart Power Myanmar
No country on earth has achieved meaningful development for its people without mass access to reliable and affordable electricity. However, communities in Myanmar lack the upfront capital they require to realize electricity’s potential. Families require capital to connect to the national grid and decentralized renewable energy solutions such as mini-grids. Micro-enterprises need support to purchase new equipment that would boost productivity and accelerate business development. Without financing, Myanmar cannot achieve economic development. To address this issue, Smart Power Myanmar (SPM) has designed an innovative, direct-delivery revolving credit facility to accelerate energy access and catalyse economic opportunity. At ACEF 2021, SPM seeks to present our experiences delivering this low-cost funding. Our evidence shows that targeted financing can: boost electricity connections by 35%; reduce businesses’ costs by 70%; and grow incomes by 50%. This demonstrates the impact of flexible financing in Myanmar and signals potential for significantly increased financing for communities.
- Michael Lochinvar Abundo, Managing Director, OceanPixel Pte Ltd
- Thang Nam Do, Research Fellow Grand Challenge Program on Zero Carbon Energy for Asia Pacific, Crawford School of Public Policy, College of Asia Pacific, Australian National University
Track 2: Rebounding from COVID-19 with Integrated Solutions
Track 2 considered medium-term issues faced by ADB’s DMCs. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected all aspects of our society, and it has demonstrated strong linkages to energy and environmental impacts. Windows of opportunity have also opened to reset energy sector priorities and to rethink technology, finance, and policy in light of cross-sectoral issues and needs. While technological innovations and markets have to be assessed under the “new normal” scenario, new priorities must consider the urgency of accelerating the transition to a low-carbon energy system, mainstreaming climate agenda into energy strategies, and adopting new policies, financing, and business models.
The objectives of Track 2 were to:
- understand COVID-19’s present and future impacts on energy and the environment;
- review the new challenges and opportunities relating to energy innovations, and facilitate innovations for future green energy transitions; and
- discuss the possibilities of combining economic recovery with a green energy transition in order to maximize the co-benefits of stimulus policies that can provide multi-solutions for carbon neutrality, post-COVID-19.
The sessions under Track 2 comprised:
In order to have a better understanding of COVID-19's impacts on the energy transition, it is important to investigate the changes during the pandemic and post COVID-19 in terms of energy demands (in different sectors and different countries), energy mix (including renewable energy penetration), energy load profile (over different days of the week and different hours of the day), emissions and other aspects. This session aimed to review the energy and environmental impacts during COVID-19 and their future changes in the energy sector.
- Renewables to the Rescue During COVID19 Pandemic: A Clean Energy Story
Presenter: Sandhya Sundararagavan, Lead - Energy Transitions, World Resources Institute (WRI)
COVID 19 pandemic provided an opportunity for the electricity sector to re-think status quo in the energy mix and consider ways and means to also take advantage of green energy in the recovery. Especially during the lockdown, renewables became a lifeline for Tamil Nadu state in India last year with its share in state’s overall capacity crossing 45%. Moving forward, it is critical to analyze what will be the future of RE transition in the short, medium and long term. The stakeholders need to visualize, strategize, and plan for resilient, clean and sustainable energy transformation. In this regard, we undertook scenario analysis to evaluate suitable energy mix and emission levels looking at a 2030 timeframe for three scenarios - Low RE, High RE and Energy Efficiency Pathway having 50%, 60% and 70% share of renewables in state's installed capacity.
- Coping with the Unexpected- M&V Approaches for Non-routine Adjustments
Presenter: Shanker Earni, Program Manager, LBNL
Measurement and verification (M&V) plays a key role in ensuring that energy savings are realized with certainty and thereby instilling the necessary confidence in energy efficiency programs. Energy savings are verified by comparing pre-retrofit with post-retrofit energy consumption, along with adjustments to account for changes in conditions. These adjustments are mostly routine to account for factors like production volume though so-called non-routine adjustments (NRA) may be needed to account for non routine events (NRE) which are changes to static factors like product mix that typically stay constant under normal conditions. Identifying and isolating NREs along with quantifying their effect to make an appropriate NRA can be complex. A lack of proper guidance exacerbates this issue and has taken a special prominence due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic that has significantly altered the operations and resulting in abnormal energy consumption in most industrial plants. Especially, projects that are evaluated through meter-based M&V approaches face significant challenges without the risk of over or under estimating the actual performance of these plants. This presentation discusses the recently published IPMVP Application Guide on NRE/A that provides a road map along with a range of approaches for detecting NREs and quantifying their effects. This work also discusses how some of these approaches can be adopted to address adjustments related to COVID-19.
- Empowering Local Governments for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability: ADB's Smart and Energy Efficient City Project (TA-9600)
Presenter: Dr. HJ Lee, Program Manager, Asian Development Bank (ADB)
The presentation will be covering activities of the Smart and Energy Efficient City Project (TA-9600 SEECP). SEECP focuses on empowering municipal governments to mainstream national energy policies in order to improve services while addressing climate change mitigation and sustainable development. Large-scale data collection has been conducted in six provinces and cities and served as the basis of ambitious but realistic municipal Energy Efficiency Action Plans (EEAPs). The data also supported preparation of project proposals for improving street lighting and building energy efficiency, smart city services, and renewable energy installation in the public sector. Summary of these results will be highlighted, along with the scope of low carbon energy technology deployment. The presentation will cover how the country will be placed in terms of achieving their NDC targets and the potential for going beyond the targets. Finally, it will address how implementation would be affected given the COVID-19 situation.
- Nitin Jain, Programme Head -EE GIZ India
- Rakesh Kumar Goyal, Vice President, Tetra Tech
- Dhruv Suri, Research Consultant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
While dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, the issue of how to combine economic stimulus recovery with green energy transition becomes an important topic for sustainable development in the post COVID-19 era. Among various actions, green recovery plans and carbon neutrality targets are given high priority. At the core of climate neutrality is the commitment to increasing renewable energy use and decreasing fossil energy consumption, which has proven effective in creating synergistic environmental, social, and economic co-benefits. Consequently, these plans and targets will lead to a net-zero-emission society and help us to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs).
Against this background, we organized this panel session to discuss the issues of how to design effective climate policy and sustainable energy systems to achieve green and low-carbon economic recovery, and how to stimulate international collaboration for green recovery in Asia.
Prof. Tatsuto Yukihara, Nagoya University, Japan & Malardalen University, Sweden
Scene Setter Talk:
The Role of Design Grant Funding to Accelerate Capital Mobilization into Climate Action
Presenter: Robert van Zwieten Managing, Director, Asia-Pacific Convergence Blended Finance
- Financing Green Energy in a Post-Covid World: Building Back Cleaner, and More Resilient Energy Systems
Presenter: Lana Zaman, Associate Sustainable Development Officer, UN DESA
This presentation highlighted the findings of a recent paper by the same title to be published by the Asian Development Bank Institute in its upcoming book on Fiscal Policy and Green Development.
The presentation examined recent trends in investment in green recovery and long-term climate resilience in the wake of COVID-19, based on an analysis of recent policies and financial commitments in 9 countries in Asia. Since the start of the pandemic, many countries have implemented innovative and ambitious initiatives to advance sustainable energy through renewable energy expansion, sustainable mobility, energy efficiency upgrades, and green cities. Some policies also include social considerations, offering support to low-income households and small companies. At the same time, commitments to develop new coal-fired power plants threaten to reverse recent progress. Additionally, many recovery funds support bailouts for fossil fuel-based companies without any climate change targets or goals.
To utilize this opportunity to build back greener energy systems, with consideration for equality and social inclusion, this presentation will additionally provide practical action-oriented policy recommendations. As many countries make zero-emissions commitments, putting these into action will require strategic thinking and comprehensive planning.
Presenter: Tamaryn Napp Senior Policy Advisor Clean Growth and UK PACT, BEIS
Presenter: Leila Pourarkin Clean Growth and UK PACT, BEIS
Greening the Banks (GTB), a green finance mainstreaming initiative led by Allotrope Partners, has been working with the Philippine Central Bank (BSP) and the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB) to build the capacity of over 150 local financial institutions to actively participate in green finance.
The Role of Green Finance in Sustainable Recovery and the Regional Energy Transition: Insights from Philippines’ Finance Stakeholders on Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Green Finance
Presenter: Marlon Joseph Apanada, Strategic Advisor and Greening the Banks Convenor, Allotrope Partners
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, GTB has emerged as a leading platform that has virtually convened over 950 finance and renewable energy stakeholders to address climate-related risks, strengthen Central Bank capacity, and explore opportunities to finance the Philippines 35% renewable energy goal. This proposed ACEF session will be the culmination of these engagements: GTB and its partners will synthesize and share a compendium of key takeaways to amplify the results and actionable recommendations from GTB convenings. These takeaways will be tailored to help the Philippines and the region rebound from COVID-19 with integrated solutions, mainstream green finance through new strategies, and strengthen governance and institutional capacity.
- Ick Jin, Director of Economic Analysis Coordination Division, National Assembly Budget Office
The COVID-19 pandemic spurred a global cessation of travel, manufacturing, and countless economic activities. This calls for clean energy innovations with immediate responses to the changes and, at the same time, to stimulate innovation for accelerating future sustainable energy transition. This session was organized to review new technologies and solutions to respond to COVID-19 issues, such as new HVAC systems, cold chain development, remote conferences, work at home, etc.
- The Three 3s: A New Organizing Principle to Save the Planet
Presenter: Dan Millison, Manager, Transcendergy, L.L.C.
A typical human can live for about 3 weeks without food, about 3 days without water, and about 3 minutes without air. Since the beginning of the first industrial revolution, humanity has been systematically destroying the ecosystems which provide food, water, and air (specifically oxygen). An over-abundance of international environmental agreements has failed to stop this destruction, and we are now faced with the 6th great extinction which includes homo sapiens. Focusing on the single tree of climate change while ignoring the broader forest of sustainability results in fat tail outcomes (e.g., VW’s “clean diesel” crimes), and it should be obvious to everyone that the UNFCCC process is not working and will not save the planet. A new organizing principle is needed which focuses on the 3 threes: regenerative agriculture and aquaculture, climate-proof water from the oceans and the atmosphere, and preserving the most critical source of oxygen – the ocean, which accounts for 50-75% of the oxygen we breathe. NDCs and Covid19 recovery plans need to be retooled around the three 3s. No new technology is needed, but imagination and political leadership are imperative.
- Solar Energy for Resilient Health Infrastructure
Presenter: Shishir Seth, Chief of Unit(Governance Bodies' meetings and Partnerships), International Solar Alliance
Climate Change and epidemics such as COVID 19 pose a significant threat to global community’s ambition for sustainable & holistic development. Health infrastructure is a critical enabler of human & economic development. Lack of access to reliable and cost-effective energy is a roadblock to developing a robust health infrastructure and is frustrating global efforts to bridge ever-widening gulf in health indicators on geographical, income, and gender divides, while straining resources at the tertiary health facilities. Innovative Off-grid Solar Energy applications at the primary care level promise rapid and demonstrable impact on the Sustainable Development Goals 3, 7 and 13. Solar powered Health Centers, vaccine cold storage, mobile health clinics, and digital health services are just some of the possible interventions for last mile delivery of quality and affordable health care. The presentation will focus on ISA CARES initiative of the International Solar Alliance for solarisation of the health sector. The ISA CARES initiative, launched in 2020 in partnership with Health Innovation Exchange (HIEx) founded by the UNAIDS, is envisaged as a holistic and integrated intervention that aims to address Energy-Health nexus through need-based and demand-driven application of solar energy applications for robust and resilient health infrastructure.
- Disease Resilient, Smart, and Energy-efficient Centralized Air-conditioning (CAC) Systems for Public Buildings in Developing Member Countries
Presenter: Yash Shukla, Executive Director Centry for Advanced Research in Building Science and Energy, CEPT University
Several studies have shown that improper design and operation of central air-conditioning (CAC) systems can increase the risk of airborne transmission of diseases such as COVID-19. In developing member countries (DMC), the risks of disease transmission through CAC systems is even higher due to the use of old air-conditioning equipment, lack of regular maintenance, and overcrowding in closed spaces. In the current context, it is vital to design and operate disease-resilient, smart, and energy-efficient CAC systems.
This presentation shares key strategies to minimize the risk of airborne transmission through the smart and energy-efficient CAC. The presentation provides recommendations on how to mitigate the risks of virus transmission, and ensure safe working conditions in public buildings located in DMCs by deploying efficient, clean, and smart CAC systems. The presentation will also share a brief overview of the market-ready technologies that can be implemented in the public buildings located in DMC.
- Lanvin Concessao, Project Associate - Energy Program, World Resources Institute
- Matt Jordan, Principal, Propel Clean Energy Partners